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Walnut Cultivar Table

Characteristics of some of the popular walnut cultivars grown in California

Growth habit
Bearing & yield
Harvest date
Net weight (g)
Kernel weight
% kernel
 Pollenizers Notes & Assessments
Chandler 4/4 Moderately vigorous Lateral bearing, strong yield  10/8  13.2

Oval, smooth, light color, thin shell, becomes stronger in older trees

6.5 49 Extra light color, easy removal in halves, not well filled Cisco, Franquette, Fernette Most common variety, excellent color & halves, fewer pest problems, but relatively late harvest
Cisco 4/14  Smaller & more precocious than Franquette Terminal bearing, moderate yield 10/12 14.2 Good seal & strength 14.8 44 Color can be variable, generally medium light Used as a pollenizer for Chandler Pollenizer variety only, for use with Chandler, Howard
Eureka 3/28 Vigorous Terminal bearing, fair yield 9/29 15.2 Elongated and round at both ends, solid shell & seal 7.4 49 Poor kernal color None recommended Old mid-season variety with distinctive elongated nut shape
Fernette 4/15 Moderate vigor Lateral bearing, good yield 10/13 14.9 Good strength 7.5 50 Light & extra light Used as pollenizer for Chandler  Developed in France. Abundant pollen producer, more precocious than Franquette.
3/30 Moderate vigor Lateral bearing, good yield 10/8 15.5 Strong shell, good strength & size 8.1 52 Plump, light color, good removal Ivanhoe, Howard, Tulare Females bloom before catkins, hulls don't open well at maturity, selected for blight resistance, late harvest
4/23 Vigorous large tree Terminal bearing, fair yield 10/17 11 Medium-thin shell with good seal 5.5 50 Good quality, light & extra light color Used at pollenizer for Chandler Old variety, late harvest, primarily used as pollenizer for Chandler & Hartley
3/25 Moderately vigorous Lateral bearing, strong yield 9/27 15.2 Large with good shell, seals can be weak 7.7 51 Light color & easy to remove Payne, Vina, Serr Newer mid-season variety with large nuts, some blight resistance
Hartley 4/3 Large tree Terminal bearing, moderate yield 10/4 14.3 Classic in-shell shape 6.5 45 Preferred for in-shell use Often no pollenizer used, Cicso, Franquette Classic variety for sale in the shell, distinct triangular shape, susceptible to deep bark canker
4/2 Moderate, not as vigorous as Chandler in some locations Lateral bearing, strong yield 9/28 14.3 Large, strong, good seal,can be a bit rough 7.2 51 Light color but darkens in storage Cisco, Franquette, Fernette Large nuts, often marketed as an in-shell variety, does not grow well in Jan Joaquin Valley, limb breakage
3/17 Fairly small to moderate tree Lateral bearing, strong yield, very precocious 9/13 12.8 Smooth, thin shell 7.3 57 Extra light color, easy removal Payne, Serr Not resistant to blight, very early harvest date with excellent color, female bloom before catkins, recommended for San Joaquin Valley
3/18 Precocious, moderate size, upright Lateral bearing, moderate yield 9/15 12.9 Good strength & appearance 6.4 50 Light color, good quality, easy removal Tehama, Chico, Hartley Early harvest date, very susceptible to blight, DNA markers indicate Ashley & Payne are identical
4/7 Large Terminal bearing, fair yield 10/4 13.7 Thick shell, not well filled 5.6 41 Small kernel marketable for flavor None recommended Unique variety grown in Lake Co, CA for its flavor
Robert Livermore
4/3 Moderate, similar to Chandler Lateral bearing, moderate yield 9/29 12.9 Solid, moderately small & dark 6.4 50 Red kernel skin Cisco, Franquette, Fernette Kernels with distinctive uniform red skin color
3/20 Very vigorous Moderately fruitful on laterals, yield variable 9/19 14.4 Thin shell, good seal, well filled 8.1 56 Light color & excellent quality pollenizers not recommended High quality and potential high productivity but susceptible to flower drop if exposed to excess pollen
3/26 Densely branched canopy, flowers in clusters common Lateral bearing, good yield, very precocious 10/1 15.6 Large, smooth, round, good strength 8.3 53 Large, light color and easy to remove from shell Covers itself well, Chandler, Howard, Tulare Unusual forked branch habit & cluster flowering
3/28 Moderate, similar to Chandler, upright Lateral bearing, strong yield  9/24 14.6 Good strength & appearance, suitable for in-shell use 7.9 54 Light & extra light color, good removal Chandler, Howard, Tulare Vina timing with better color & upright growth habit
3/20 Vigorous Lateral bearing, variable yield 9/27 17.9 Well filled, large, oval, solid shell 9.8 55 good quality, large, plump & oval Chico, Tehama & Tulare Potential for high productivity but susceptible nut drop & oilless nuts
Tehama 3/31 Vigorous Lateral bearing, heavy 9/25 14.1 Solid shell, can have weak seals 6.8 48 Light color, not well filled Used at a pollenizer for Serr Primarily a pollenizer for Serr
Tulare 4/1 Upright, vigorous Lateral bearing, strong yield  9/28 14.1 Medium texture & strength 7.6 53 Light color, good fill Often planted with no pollenizer Vigorous growth, good mid-season yield, upright canopy; susceptible to fall & winter cold temperatures
Vina 3/26 Moderate size, not upright, tendency to over-bear Lateral bearing, strong yield  9/23 12.6 Good seal & strength, can be used in-shell 6.2 49 Often color is not adequate Chico, Chandler, Tehama, Howard Highly productive but reputation for inadequate kernel color & branch structure